Tecnologías para el tratamiento de aguas con radiación solar para el desarrollo sustentable: Una Revisión

Jesús Rascón, Jherson Culqui Huaman, Wildor Gosgot Ángeles, Manuel Oliva, Yuri Reina Marin, Damaris Leiva-Tafur, Oscar Gamarra-Torres

Resumen


La falta de tecnologías económicas y eficientes para el tratamiento de aguas es un problema global. Muchos investigadores buscan nuevas alternativas para el tratamiento de aguas que, reemplacen a las tecnologías tradicionales como la cloración, la filtración o la ebullición. Algunas de las tecnologías alternativas, son los que utilizan la radiación solar como los destiladores solares, el fotofenton o la desinfección solar (SODIS). Son tecnologías más económicas a comparación con las tradicionales, al utilizar la radiación solar como energía renovable, y por lo tanto el costo disminuye. Sin embargo, mediante estas tecnologías, no se pueden tratar grandes volúmenes de agua, como es el caso del SODIS que pueden tratar eficiente mente bajos volúmenes de agua mediante el uso botellas de politereftalato de etileno (PET). En el intento de mejorar las tecnologías basados en radiación solar se han creado algunas como las bolsas SODIS o los colectores solares con espejos parabólicos, también llamados concentradores parabólicos compuestos (CPC). Aun así, también presentan una serie de inconvenientes. En el caso de las bolsas SODIS, dan un mal olor al agua tratada, mientras que, en el caso de los CPC el costo de su implementación es más elevado. Como una alternativa económica a todo esto, surgió la fotocatálisis que usa normalmente el Óxido de Titanio (TiO2) como fotocatalizador. Con ello se reducen los tiempos de exposición mediante reacciones redox, lo que hace que métodos como el SODIS sean más eficientes.

Palabras clave


desinfección solar; nuevas tecnologías; fotocatálisis; calidad agua

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25127/aps.20203.671

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